- students clarify any terms and concepts in the problem text
- generate a definition of the problem (or what is really the problem to be solved)
- students brainstorm ideas, hypothesize, question about the problem
- systematize and scrutinize the ideas
- produce a list of issues for individual learning (the learning goals / contents behind the problem)
- the learning issues are used to guide student study activities where students study the available resources
- students share findings, review and discuss literature, solve other problems, and synthesize what is learned.
Hmelo-Silver, C., Duncan, R.G., Chinn, C.A. (2007). Scaffolding and Achievement in Problem-Based and Inquiry Learning: A Response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist. 42(2), pp 99 - 107.
Schmidt, H.G., Loyens, S.M., van Gog, T., Paas, F. (2007). Problem-Based Learning is Compatible with Human Cognitive Architecture: Commentary on Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist, 42(2), pp 91 - 97.